While rare in cats, Cushing's disease can occur, and when it does the symptoms can be alarming. In today's post our Matthews Veterinary Internal Medicine Specialist shares some of the tell-tale signs of Cushing's disease in cats and what causes the condition.
Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushing's Disease in Cats
Cushing's disease or Hyperadrenocorticism is caused by the excessive and persistent production of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Excessive cortisol production can occur due to one of two underlying issues.
Iatrogenic Hyperadrenocorticism is a form of Cushing's disease that is caused by the long-term and high dose use of cortisol-like drugs to treat allergies and inflammation caused by other health conditions, or progesterone-type drugs (progestagens) which are used to control reproductive cycling in female cats.
Naturally-Occurring Hyperadrenocorticism is characterized by excess cortisol production due to adrenal or pituitary gland tumors. Pituitary gland tumors can lead to the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone, which can result in the adrenals becoming enlarged and producing excessive cortisol.
Symptoms of Cushing's Disease in Cats
Although Cushing's is relatively rare in cats there are a number of symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. One of the most noticeable and troubling symptoms that can indicate your cat has Cushing's is extremely thin and fragile skin which breaks and bleeds when you simply pet your cat.
Diabetes typically occurs at the same time as Cushing's in cats, meaning symptoms of diabetes can point to Cushing's disease. Other symptoms of Cushing's in cats include:
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive urination
- Swollen abdomen
- Muscle wasting
- Poor coat condition
- Increased appetite
- Hair loss
- Curling ear tips
Treatment for Cushing's Disease in Cats
If your cat is diagnosed with Cushing's disease, treatment will depend upon the underlying cause of the condition.
If your cat is diagnosed with iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism your vet will prescribe a controlled and gradual withdrawal of the medications that are causing the disease. Alternative medications will need to be prescribed to treat the underlying condition for which the problematic drug was originally prescribed.
If your cat is suffering from naturally-occurring hyperadrenocorticism your vet may recommend one or more of the following treatments:
- Drug therapy – While a number of different drugs have been used to suppress cortisol production, few of these have been proven effective in cats. Trilostane appears to work best in cat's and is the most commonly prescribed. This medication is administered once or twice a day. Drug therapy may help to relieve your cat's Cushing's symptoms although it can take a fair amount of time to see results.
- Surgical adrenalectomy – The surgical removal of an adrenal gland can be a good treatment option if just one adrenal gland is affected.
- Hypophysectomy – The surgical removal of the pituitary gland is a challenging and potentially risky surgery that is typically only used in extreme cases.
- Radiation for pituitary tumors – Availability of this treatment can be limited but often proves to be effective in treating cats with Cushing's disease.
Prognosis for Cats With Cushing's Disease
When it comes to predicting the treatment outcomes for cats with Cushing's the cause of the condition will play a large role in your cat's prognosis.
Many cats respond well to treatment for iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism and go on to live a comfortable life for many months or years.
That said, if your cat's Cushing's disease is caused by a malignant tumor the prognosis will be understandably guarded.